在CentOS和RHEL中配置SNMPv3

http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_979924390102xpdh.html
首先,使用yum安装必要的软件

[root@server ~]# yum install net-snmp-utils net-snmp-devel
安装完成之后, 先停止snmpd,再创建具有只读属性的SNMP 账户。 .
[root@server ~]# service snmpd stop
[root@server ~]# net-snmp-create-v3-user -A snmpv3pass -a MD5 -x DES snmpv3user
==================================================================

snmp V3的方式设置简单,而且安全性更高。

配置方法:
1.停止snmpd服务
  #service snmpd stop

2.增加snmpv3用户,并设置认证以及加密方式
  # net-snmp-create-v3-user
   Enter a SNMPv3 user name to create:
   enocsnmpv3
   Enter authentication pass-phrase:
    enocsnmpv3pw
   Enter encryption pass-phrase:
   [press return to reuse the authentication pass-phrase]
   enocsnmpv3pk
    adding the following line to /var/lib/net-snmp/snmpd.conf:
      createUser enocsnmpv3 MD5 “enocsnmpv3pw” DES enocsnmpv3pk
   adding the following line to /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf:
      rwuser enocsnmpv3

3.启动snmpd服务
# service snmpd restart

现通过snmpwalk测试一下:
# snmpwalk -v3 -uenocsnmpv3 -lauth -aMD5 -A”enocsnmpv3pw” -X”enocsnmpv3pk” localhost | more
SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux CentOS60A 2.6.32-71.el6.i686 #1 SMP Fri Nov 12 04:17:17 GMT 2010 i686
SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: SNMPv2-SMI::org
DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (9443) 0:01:34.43

或:
# snmpwalk -v3 -uenocsnmpv3 -lauth -aMD5 -A”enocsnmpv3pw”  localhost .1 | more
或:
# snmpwalk -v3 -lauth -uenocsnmpv3 -aMD5 -xDES -A”enocsnmpv3pw” -X”enocsnmpv3pk” localhost .1 | more

补充:
SNMP Version 3 specific
 -a PROTOCOL           set authentication protocol (MD5|SHA)
 -A PASSPHRASE         set authentication protocol pass phrase
 -e ENGINE-ID          set security engine ID (e.g. 800000020109840301)
 -E ENGINE-ID          set context engine ID (e.g. 800000020109840301)
 -l LEVEL              set security level (noAuthNoPriv|authNoPriv|authPriv)
 -n CONTEXT            set context name (e.g. bridge1)
 -u USER-NAME          set security name (e.g. bert)
 -x PROTOCOL           set privacy protocol (DES|AES)
 -X PASSPHRASE         set privacy protocol pass phrase
 -Z BOOTS,TIME         set destination engine boots/time

==================================================================
## OUTPUT ##
adding the following line to /var/lib/net-snmp/snmpd.conf:
createUser snmpv3user MD5 “snmpv3pass” DES
adding the following line to /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf:
rouser snmpv3user
[root@server ~]# service snmpd start
SNMPv3测试
snmpwalk 是测试SNMP配置和输出出色的工具。成功的测试结果应当有大量的输出数据。
[root@server ~]# snmpwalk -u snmpv3user -A snmpv3pass -a MD5 -l authnoPriv 192.168.1.2 -v3
### OUTPUT ###
SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux server.example.tst 2.6.32-71.el6.i686 #1 SMP Fri Nov 12 04:17:17 GMT 2010 i686
SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs.10
DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (28963) 0:04:49.63
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORLastChange.0 = Timeticks: (1) 0:00:00.01
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.1 = OID: SNMP-MPD-MIB::snmpMPDMIBObjects.3.1.1
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.2 = OID: SNMP-USER-BASED-SM-MIB::usmMIBCompliance
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.3 = OID: SNMP-FRAMEWORK-MIB::snmpFrameworkMIBCompliance
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.4 = OID: SNMPv2-MIB::snmpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.5 = OID: TCP-MIB::tcpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.6 = OID: IP-MIB::ip
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.7 = OID: UDP-MIB::udpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.8 = OID: SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACM-MIB::vacmBasicGroup
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORDescr.1 = STRING: The MIB for Message Processing and Dispatching.
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORDescr.2 = STRING: The MIB for Message Processing and Dispatching.
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORDescr.3 = STRING: The SNMP Management Architecture MIB.
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORDescr.4 = STRING: The MIB module for SNMPv2 entities
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORDescr.5 = STRING: The MIB module for managing TCP implementation
## and the output continues ##
删除SNMPv3账户
SNMPv3 账户信息被包含在两个文件之中。删除账户即删除这个文件中的信息即可。
root@server:~# service snmpd stop
root@server:~# vim /var/lib/net-snmp/snmpd.conf
## there should be a similar encrypted line that contains information on the user ##
## this line is removed ##
usmUser 1 3 0x80001f8880056e06573a1e895100000000 0x736e6d70763375736572000x736e6d7076337573657200 NULL .1.3.6.1.6.3.10.1.1.2 0x945ed3c9708ea5493f53f953b45a4513 .1.3.6.1.6.3.10.1.2.2 0x945ed3c9708ea5493f53f953b45a4513 “”
root@server:~# vim /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf
## The following line is removed ##
rouser snmpv3user
root@server:~# service snmpd start
防火墙调节(可选)
下面的例子中的防火墙规则可以被用于限制被允许进行SNMP查询的源IP地址。两个IP地址(例如,192.168.1.100/101)被置于白名单中。
root@server:~# iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.100/32 -p udp –dport 161 -j ACCEPT
root@server:~# iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.101/32 -p udp –dport 161 -j ACCEPT
root@server:~# iptables -A INPUT -p udp –dport 161 -j DROP
思科交换机和路由器配置SNMPv3
思科交换机和路由器同样支持SNMPv3。下面的例子将创建一个访问控制列表(ACL)限制允许做SNMP查询的源IP地址。但是,这步被跳过了。
设置访问控制列表(ACL)(可选)
## global config mode ##
ip access-list standard SNMP_ACL
permit 192.168.1.100
permit 192.168.1.100
SNMPv3 配置
下面的配置创建一个名为v3Group与认证AuthNoPriv安全级别v3的组。前面定义的可选访问列表也支持设定。
## global config mode ##
## With ACL ##
snmp-server group v3Group v3 auth access SNMP_ACL

## Without ACL ##
snmp-server group v3Group v3 auth
用户v3user被创建并添加在v3Group下。 

DES加密密钥
snmp-server user snmpv3user v3Group v3 auth md5 snmpv3pass priv DES snmpv3pass
AES加密密钥
snmp-server user snmpv3user v3Group v3 auth md5 snmpv3pass priv AES 128 snmpv3pass
 

SNMPv3测试
SNMP用户和相关组可以在Cisco设备中查看。
### privileged EXEC mode ##
show snmp user
User name: v3user
Engine ID: ************************
storage-type: nonvolatile active
Authentication Protocol: MD5
Privacy Protocol: AES128
Group-name: v3Group
任何Linux设备中的snmpwalk的都可以用来验证配置和检查输出。
snmpwalk -u snmpv3user -A snmpv3pass -a MD5 -l authnoPriv 192.168.1.3 -v3
iso.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0 = STRING: “Cisco IOS Software”
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2012 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
iso.3.6.1.2.1.1.2.0 = OID: iso.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.1166
iso.3.6.1.2.1.1.7.0 = INTEGER: 78
iso.3.6.1

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